Quintilians institute of oratory.
Quintilian believed that professions of the grammarian and teacher of rhetoric should be in some degree united (Content and context should be united) Facility in speaking is attained by exercise in it, and by reading, hearing, and writing (important fields in today’s schools) He had ideas on how the teacher should conduct himself towards his pupils(Model and responsibilities) A pupil should be put under an eminent teacher at first, not under an inferior one because learning wrong just has to be undone later. The best teacher can teach little things best, as well as great ones. A Variety of talent and disposition in pupils requires variety of treatment, (differenciated instruction) A teacher should not be without imagination, or too much given to find fault with his pupil’s attempts, and the best authors should be read at an early age. The pupil should be cautious of imitating very ancient or very modern writers, 21-26.
In composition, the pupil should have but moderate assistance, not too much or too little. (Facilitation) On what sort of subjects pupils may be permitted to declaim (Constructive criticism) Pupils should regard their tutors as intellectual parents. Where is the line? He wants them young, and they should learn grammar before rhetorical practices. He boasts and practices of the ignorant( Power NCLB) Why the ignorant often seem to speak with more force than the learned( there are more of them, and they have more children) Oratory said by some to be a pernicious art, because it may be perverted to bad ends ( politicians, lawyers.) Quintilian does not give rules from which there is no departure; pleaders must act according to the requisitions of their subjects, What an orator has chiefly to keep in view, and how far rules should be observed (flexibility in pedagogy) To call it the power of persuading is to give an insufficient definition of it, 3-9. To call it the power of persuading by speech is not sufficient( Wittman a way of life affects the behaviors of others.) Not pernicious because it sometimes misleads that it may be exerted on either side of a question, and that it contradicts itself; answered. Oratory is sometimes ignorant of the truth of what it asserts; but the same is the case with other arts and sciences. Confirmation of its being an art nature contributes more to oratory. We are not to imitate one author only. Not to imitate style only, (Flattery is nice but it will inhibit originality and internalization.) we must do our best in the circumstances in which we find ourselves,( be flexable) Observations on correction; we must not indulge in it too much.( be a facilitator) Cases for declamation should be as similar as possible to real cases, Of the ability of speaking extempore; for it is strength of feeling, combined with energy of intellect, that renders us eloquent. Hence even to the illiterate, words are not wanting if they are but roused by some strong passion according to Quintilian.